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Computer System Architecture
(m morris mano)

This book is preferably suited to candidates who have no prior knowledge of computer hardware yet a zeal to learn , a zest to know.Defining generally, a C.O.M.P.U.T.E.R. can be called as Commonly Operating Machine Particularly Used for Training Education and Research  

A computer system is composed of hardware and system software. The system software of a computer consists of a collection of programs with a specific purpose to make more effective use of the computing machine. These programs constitute the Operating System of the computer.

Computer organization is related to the way the hardware components operate and the way they are interconnected comprising
the computer system.  

Computer architecture
is basically concerned with the stucture and behaviour of the computer as obeserved by the user. Including Information formats, instruction set , and technical details for addressing the memory locations.

Also of prime significance is the very high speed memory called Cache which is sometimes used to increase the speed of processing by making current programs and data available to the Central Processing Unit at a rapid rate.

is defined as a state wherein multiple operating systems are designed to enable the CPU to process a number of independent programs concurrently. This concept of multiprogramming actually refers to the existence of two or more programs in different parts of the memory hierarchy simultaneously.
With multiprogramming, arises the need for running partial programs , for varying the amount of main memory in use by a given program , and for moving programs around the memory hierarchy.

Virtual Memory
is a concept used in several large computer systems that permit the user to construct programs as though a huge memory space is available, equal to the complete auxillary memory. Each address that is referenced by the CPU goes through an address mapping from the so-reffered virtual address to a physical address in main memory. Virtual Memory  enhances the programmer''s vision by creating an illusion that they have a very large memory at their disposal, even though the computer actually might have a comparitively small memory.
Overall this book is best suited for a candidate at intermediate level of his expertise in computers.

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