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Asynchronous Javascript Technology And Xml (ajax)
(Greg Murray)

Using JavaScript technology, an HTML page can asynchronously make calls to the server from which it was loaded and fetch XML documents. The XML documents may then be used by the JavaScript technology to update or modify the Document Object Model (DOM) of the HTML page. The term Asynchronous JavaScript Technology and XML (AJAX) has emerged recently to describe this interaction model. AJAX is not new. These techniques have been available to developers targeting Internet Explorer on the Windows platform for many years. Until recently, the technology was known as web remoting or remote scripting. Web developers have also used a combination of plug-ins, Java applets, and hidden frames to emulate this interaction model for some time. What has changed recently is that the inclusion of support for the XMLHttpRequest object has became ubiquitous in the mainstream browsers across all platforms. The real magic is the result of the JavaScript technology's XMLHttpRequest object. Although this object is not specified in the formal JavaScript technology specification, all of today's mainstream browsers support it. The subtle differences with the JavaScript technology and CSS support among current generation browsers such as Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari are manageable. If you are required to support older browsers, AJAX may not be the answer for you. What makes AJAX-based clients unique is that the client contains page-specific control logic embedded as JavaScript technology. The page interacts with the JavaScript technology based on events such as the document being loaded, a mouse click, focus changes, or even a timer. AJAX interactions allow for a clear separation of presentation logic from the data. An HTML page can pull in bite-size pieces of data as needed rather than reloading the whole page every time a change needs to be displayed. AJAX will require a different server-side architecture to support this interaction model. Traditionally, server-side web applications have focused on generating HTML documents for every client event resulting in a call to the server. The clients would then refresh and re-render the complete HTML page for each response. Rich web applications focus on a client fetching an HTML document that acts as a template or container into which to inject content, based on client events using XML data retrieved from a server-side component.

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